Wineland Slovakia


E16°50'56“ - E22°33'53“
N47°44'21“ -N49°36'48“
Surface: 49 036 km2
Population: 5 427 916 inhabitants
Capital: Bratislava

Mountainous relief, forested: wine regions located in the South – planes and basins, southern slopes of mountain chains (Western Carpathians), big differences within short distances

Rich in water – rivers and big sources of underground water incl. mineral and thermal. DUNAJ (Danube), MORAVA, VÁH, HRON, NITRA, IPEL,
BODROG, TISA (Tisza) most important “wine” rivers

Climate: continental cool to marginal, mostly clouded, long and sunny autumn
Site selection: gentle slopes, South orientation, protected, good air circulation, soil and sub-soil (drainage/ retention)

The history of viticulture
14th- 19th Ct. – Golden age of the viticulture, commerce, privileges: Bratislava (= Pressburg/ Pozsony/ Prešpork), Central region, Tokaj. Upper Hungary: 57 000 ha of vineyards – renowned wines delivered to Royal Courts
19th//20th – powdery and downy mildew, phylloxera, WWI, WWII, economy crisis – devastation of vineyards, never completely recovered
1918: breakdown of the Austria-Hungary, creation of Czechoslovakia, partial consolidation of wine sector
1948 – 1960 – collectivization changed the principles of viticulture breaking men’s natural bond with land
1960ies-1980ies - mass production vs. research & development (recreation of vineyards from <13 000 ha to 30000 ha), zoning of grapevine cultivars, genetic fund preservation, new clones and original crossings
1993 – peaceful separation of the Czech R. and Slovakia: challenging restitutions & re-privatization, chaotic urbanization – abandonment of traditional vineyards vs. re-structuring, modernization, investments
Since 1990ies - emerging of new wineries, quality wine production
2004 – accession to the EU // 2009 – new wine law
21st Ct.- Slovak wines acknowledged at prestigious international competitions, natural (authentic) wine movement, terroir research and mapping,  VERSUS: continuous decrease of vineyards (planted and cultivated), clear appellation system still missing

Facts & Figures
o    Total vineryards registered: 16 610 ha
o    Winegrapes: 15 737 ha
o    In active production: ≅10 000 ha  (estimation)
o    Harvested: ≅ 8 500 ha (estimation)
o    74%: white grapes; 26%: red grapes
o    400 registered producers
o    Typical producer: family owned
o    Top 20 wineries:   85%of the total production
o    60 - 85%: quality wines with certified origin (IG)
o    Wine production: 250 – 350 000 hl p.a.
o    Great diversity of grape varieties and wine styles
o    Typical wine style: mono varietal, white, dry to off-dry, lighter bodied, floral with primary fruit and racy acidity

White varieties
o    Veltlínske zelené (Grüner Veltliner) 23%
o    Rizling vlašský (Welschriesling) 19%
o    Müller-Thurgau 12%

Red varieties
o    Frankovka (Blaufränkisch) 36%
o    Svätovavrinecké (Sankt Laurent) 26%